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Thèses >

Contributions to Automatic Text Classification : Metrics and Evolutionary Algorithms

Ahmad Mazyad

jeudi 22 novembre 2018 à 10h00

Salle B014


This thesis deals with natural language processing and text mining, at the intersection of machine learning and statistics. We are particularly interested in Term Weighting Schemes (TWS) in the context of supervised learning and specifically the Text Classification (TC) task. In TC, the multi-label classification task has gained a lot of interest in recent years. Multi-label classification from textual data may be found in many modern applications such as news classification where the task is to find the categories that a newswire story belongs to (e.g., politics, middle east, oil), based on its textual content, music genre classification (e.g., jazz, pop, oldies, traditional pop) based on customer reviews, film classification (e.g., action, crime, drama), product classification (e.g., Electronics, Computers, Accessories). Traditional classification algorithms are generally binary classifiers, and they are not suited for the multi-label classification. The multi-label classification task is, therefore, transformed into multiple single-label binary tasks. However, this transformation introduces several issues. First, terms distributions are only considered in relevance to the positive and the negative categories (i.e., information on the correlations between terms and categories is lost). Second, it fails to consider any label dependency (i.e., information on existing correlations between classes is lost). Finally, since all categories but one are grouped into one category (the negative category), the newly created tasks are imbalanced. This information is commonly used by supervised TWS to improve the effectiveness of the classification system. Hence, after presenting the process of multi-label text classification, and more particularly the TWS, we make an empirical comparison of these methods applied to the multi-label text classification task. We find that the superiority of the supervised methods over the unsupervised methods is still not clear. We show then that these methods are not fully adapted to the multi-label classification problem and that they ignore much statistical information that could be used to improve the classification results. Thus, we propose a new TWS based on information gain. This new method takes into consideration the term distribution, not only regarding the positive and the negative categories but also in relevance to all classes. Finally, aiming at finding specialized TWS that also solve the issue of imbalanced tasks, we studied the benefits of using genetic programming for generating TWS for the text classification task. Unlike previous studies, we generate formulas by combining statistical information at a microscopic level (e.g., the number of documents that contain a specific term) instead of using complete TWS. Furthermore, we make use of categorical information such as (e.g., the number of categories where a term occurs.). Experiments are made to measure the impact of these methods on the performance of the model. We show through these experiments that the results are positive.